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The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2018)

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Room: BL.27.02
Chaired by:
Paul Fleming | NREL
Topic: CM. Control and Monitoring
Form of presentation: Oral
Duration: 110 minutes

Authors:
Steffen Raach, Sjoerd Boersma, Bart Doekemeijer, Jan.Willem van Wingerden, Po Wen Cheng

Abstract:
This work presents the next step in realizing lidar-based closed-loop wakeredirection control. The concept is implemented in the LES code PALM. The wake position is estimated from the flow and used in an H ∞ controller which is designed by the usage of the reduced order flow model, WFSim. The setup shows its ability to redirect the wake to a desired position in a turbulent simulation scenario.

Authors:
Christian Kress, Sebastian Mechler, Nora Denecke, Alexander Rohr, Malte Fedebohm, Jens Rabe, Michael Koch, Andreas Friedmann, Christian Kühnert, Ruben Seyboldt, Martin Ummenhofer, Christoph Schwark

Abstract:
Intelligent wind park monitoring systems may allow cutting the levelized cost of wind-generated electricity by deploying maintenance personnel more efficiently. The non-contacting passive radar technology and advanced sensing technologies on the plant side offer significant potential for such monitoring systems. The goal of the 3-year-long project ISO.Wind is to identify the most cost-efficient sensing technologies to detect maintenance-relevant damages and to use it for a wind park monitoring system. For this purpose a commercial 3MW wind turbine is instrumented with strain gauges and a network of accelerometers following IEC standard 61400-13.  It is also monitored by passive radar technology. A learning algorithm is developed and fed with available data from the sensor systems and operational data from the instrumented wind turbine. The algorithm is capable of detecting operational patterns and damage cases of the wind turbine. A graphic user interface illustrates these conditions in a comprehensible way. First field measurements show the suitability of the passive radar technology to detect the damage-relevant dynamics of the instrumented wind turbine. Validated simulations of typical damage cases prove that both instrumentation on the plant side and the passive radar sensing technology allow reliable damage detection for the examined wind turbine.

Authors:
Mehdi Vali, Vlaho Petrović, Gerald Steinfeld, Lucy Y Pao, Martin Kühn

Abstract:
In this paper, an active power control approach for wind farms is studied, for a case in which the wind turbines interact with each other aerodynamically through their wakes. We show that the structural loadings on the individual wind turbines can be coordinated in order to expand their lifetimes, while the wind farm tracks a power reference signal. We propose an additional feedback control loop in order to adjust the distribution of the regulated power demands among the wind turbines. The axial induction factor of each wind turbine is considered here as a control input to influence the overall performance. The applicability of the controller is examined for a wind farm consisting of 2by3 turbines with partial wake overlaps and detailed interactions with atmospheric boundary layers, simulated with a high-fidelity Large-eddy simulation (LES) model of wind farms. The initial results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and point to some potential studies that may improve and extend the performance.

Authors:
Jennifer Annoni

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to incorporate sparse sensor data to improve flow field estimates in a wind farm, which can be used to perform better online optimization and control that reflect the current conditions of the wind farm.  A sparse sensing algorithm is used to determine the optimal locations of additional sensors to improve the overall estimation precision of the flow field in a wind farm.  This algorithm takes advantage of the dominant structures in a wind farm to reconstruct the flow field from point measurements in the field.  These point measurements include noisy information recorded at a turbine as well as a minimal number of sensors placed in optimal locations.  These additional sensors, in their optimal locations, have the ability to improve the observability of a wind farm and thus provide faster state estimation and higher bandwidth control for wind farms.

Authors:
Vlaho Petrović, Jannik Schottler, Ingrid Neunaber, Michael Hölling, Martin Kühn

Abstract:
As the wind energy penetration increases, it is becoming more important for wind farms to contribute to frequency regulation, i.e. active power control on the power grid. However, before such controllers can be widely used in industry, they need to be thoroughly validated. This paper contributes to this task by presenting an experimental setup suitable for validation of wind farm control algorithms in wind tunnel experiments. A closed loop active power control is implemented on scaled wind turbines, and tested in a turbulent wind tunnel at ForWind-University of Oldenburg under different wind and operating conditions. Obtained results show that the proposed controller is sufficient for following power references, and thus for contributing to frequency control, which is in accordance to numerical studies available in the literature.

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