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The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2018)

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Room: BL.27.0.2
Chaired by: Frederik Zahle | DTU
Topic: DSE. Design, System Engineering and New Concepts
Form of presentation: Oral
Duration: 110 minutes

Authors:
Malo Rosemeier, Pablo Buriticá, Alexandros Antoniou

Abstract:
Wind turbine blades consist of thin-walled cylindric and airfoil-shaped structures,which are prone to buckling. In such lightweight structures, sandwich constructions are used to reduce weight and prevent stability issues. The leading and trailing edge panels of the blade in particular are designed as a sandwich, which requires an evaluation of the buckling, where shear crimping can be one of the critical failure modes. Shear crimping is critical when the through-the-thickness shear stiffness of the core is relatively low compared to the bending stiffness of the face sheets. In this study, shell and solid finite element (FE) blade models were benchmarked against each other in order to simulate the shear crimping failure mode. Additionally, analytic plate models were compared to FE for different sandwich thicknesses and core properties to identify shear crimping. For relatively thin sandwich constructions, the analytic plate models were closer to FE shell results, whereas the models diverged when the sandwich was relatively thick. The importance of a realistic representation of core materials which takes into account the resin uptake in sandwich constructions of wind turbine blades was highlighted.

Authors:
Michele Damiano, Angelo D’Ettore

Abstract:
This paper presents the ONE SHOT BLADE® technology introduced in the wind turbine blade manufacturing process in order to reduce the time, and hence the costs required to build the blade. A comparison with respect to the standard process is also highlighted. The aim of this study is to optimize the structural configuration of a 50m length blade, built with this innovative manufacturing technique, providing a feasible design according to the international standard requirements.

Authors:
Luca Sartori, Fabio Bellini, Alessandro Croce, Carlo Luigi Bottasso

Abstract:
A growing interest about next-generation wind turbines leads the research to investigate the feasibility of 15-20MW converters, with the goal to upscale current industrial standards. The design of such turbines must account for multi-disciplinary interactions which affect the operating conditions of the machine during its lifetime. Automated design algorithms can provide significant help during the design, from preliminary characterization to the detailed sizing of components. In this work, we use an automatic design tool to conduct a preliminary design of a conceptual 20MW wind turbine. Starting from an upscaled reference configuration, we conduct a preliminary structural optimization in order to fulfil fundamental safety constraints. Subsequently, we exploit the optimization suite to conduct  trade-off studies in which several features of the rotor are parametrically optimized. Studies on the rotor solidity and prebend, as well as the application of active and passive load-alleviation techniques are investigated, showing a continuous improvement of the key performance of the turbine in terms of mass, ultimate and fatigue loads, energy production and CoE. The main findings highlights some directions for further developments, in which finer levels of analysis, as well as new capabilities of the design algorithm will be explored to further improve the design.

Authors:
Sebastian Sanchez Perez-Moreno, Katherine Dykes, Karl Otto Merz, Michiel Bastiaan Zaaijer

Abstract:
Motivated by the need to develop reference wind energy systems for optimisation and technology assessment studies, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 37 on Wind Energy Systems Engineering is developing a reference offshore wind power plant at the Dutch offshore wind energy areas Borssele III and IV. This paper presents a comparison between two approaches for developing the preliminary design of an offshore wind plant turbine layout, electrical collection system, and support structures. The first is a sequential approach, where components of the wind farm are optimised sequentially, each with its own objective function, thus neglecting potential interactions between them. The second approach uses Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimisation (MDAO), where all components are jointly optimised with the overall system levelised cost of energy (LCOE) as as a global objective function. Studying the cases of regular and irregular layouts, the integrated approach always shows a greater improvement in the LCOE of the final design compared to the design resulting from the traditional sequential approach. The most significant trade-off that the MDAO approach used in this study exploits is between losses in energy production due to turbine wake effects and the costs of electrical cable infrastructure.

Authors:
Pietro Bortolotti

Abstract:
This study integrates noise emission models within a wind turbine design procedure to include overall sound pressure levels as design constraints. The proposed approach aims at the minimization of the cost of wind energy, while ensuring the compliance with noise emission limits. The reference 3.35 MW onshore wind turbine developed within the international cooperation IEA Wind Task 37 is re-designed to reduce its noise emissions. Results obtained with the proposed noise-constrained methodology are compared with the simpler approach of limiting the blade tip speed.

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